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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-18

Parental risk factors associated with hypospadias


Department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Bindhu Suma Shekar
Department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2321-4848.113553

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Introduction: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies of male external genitalia. It occurs in approximately 1 in 250 newborn. Hypospadias can be defined as an abnormal urethral orifice under surface of the penis with or without chordee and with or without dorsal hood. Hypospadias may be an isolated defect or a phenotypical component of a more complex condition such as an intersex state. The only treatment is surgery. Thus, prevention is imperative. To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the etiology of hypospadias. Objective: To identify risk factors for hypospadias, with a focus on potential endocrine disruption, in parental demography, diet, and occupation. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study nested within a cohort of 3246 male births, we compared 17 hypospadias cases with 68 controls. Through questionnaire proforma, information was collected on pregnancy aspects and personal characteristics. Result: Our findings indicate that parental pesticide exposure and smoking were associated with hypospadias, maternal occupational exposure, diet and life style were not associated with hypospadias. The prevalence rate of hypospadias in our study was 0.05%. Conclusion: Since the paternal pesticide exposure and smoking were significantly associated with hypospadias, paternal exposure should be included in further studies on hypospadias risk factors.


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