|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 26-29
Association between body anthropometric parameters and indices of cardiac autonomic function among apparently healthy young adults
Oluwadare Ogunlade1, Muritala Abiola Asafa1, Abiodun Oladele Ayoka1, Anthony Olubunmi Akintomide2
1 Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
|Date of Web Publication||2-Jun-2016|
Muritala Abiola Asafa
Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Anthropometric parameters are useful for indexing cardiovascular variables. Objectives: This study aimed at determining the association between anthropometric parameters and autonomic cardiovascular indices (ACIs) among young adults. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 204 healthy young adults who were residents of Ile-Ife. The weight (kg) and height (m) were measured with health scale while body mass index and body surface area were calculated using Quetelet index and Mosteller formula, respectively. Each participant was evaluated through a battery of procedures; systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to standing, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) response to sustained handgrip (SH), resting heart rate (RHR), heart rate (HR) variability during Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, and change of posture while the ACIs were derived as outcome of the procedures. The relationship between the anthropometry and ACI was determined by correlation. Results: Height positively correlated with SBP response to posture (r = 0.107, P = 0.128), DBP response to SH (r = 0.143, P = 0.041), and heart rate response to deep breathing (HDB) (r = 0.043, P = 0.540). Height negatively correlated with Valsalva ratio (r = −0.022, P = 0.759), 30:15 ratio (r = −0.009, P = 0.902), and RHR (−0.152, P = 0.030). Weight correlated positively with postural change in SBP (r = 0.096, P = 0.172), DBP response to SH (r = 0.091, P = 0.197), and 30:15 ratio (r = 0.005, P = 0.948). Weight negatively correlated with HR response to deep breathing (r = −0.114, P = 0.105) and RHR (r = −0.153, P = 0.029). Conclusion: Anthropometric parameters correlated weakly with most indices of cardiac autonomic function except RHR.
Keywords: Anthropometry, association, cardiac autonomic function, young adults
|How to cite this article:|
Ogunlade O, Asafa MA, Ayoka AO, Akintomide AO. Association between body anthropometric parameters and indices of cardiac autonomic function among apparently healthy young adults. Arch Med Health Sci 2016;4:26-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Ogunlade O, Asafa MA, Ayoka AO, Akintomide AO. Association between body anthropometric parameters and indices of cardiac autonomic function among apparently healthy young adults. Arch Med Health Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jun 20];4:26-9. Available from: http://www.amhsjournal.org/text.asp?2016/4/1/26/183351
| Introduction|| |
Anthropometric parameters are very useful in public health policy development, clinical decision-making, health risk assessment profiling, drug prescription, fluid requirement, and disease diagnosis. There are evidences to suggest that anthropometric parameters vary with age, sex, ethnicity, and race. The ethnic and racial diversity plays a significant role in influencing anthropometric dimensions., However, the most commonly assessed anthropometric parameters are weight, height, body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index, body surface area (BSA), and waist/abdominal circumference. The global epidemic of overweight and obesity termed “globesity” is the major public health problem in developed as well as developing world. Recent study conducted among young adult Nigerians by Ogunlade and Asafa in 2015 showed that more than one in every eight young adults were either overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity accounted for as many as 15-30% of deaths from coronary heart disease and 65-75% of new cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overweight is the second risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of sudden cardiac death with increasing weight was reported in a Framingham study. Overweight and obesity result from an energy surplus over time that is stored in the body as fat. How genetic and environmental factors contribute to overweight and obesity is not well understood., Height and BSA usually play a significant role in influencing cardiovascular variables, especially left ventricular mass (LMV) is such, as their anthropometric parameters were used for indexing LMV., Data are sparse with regard to association between body anthropometric parameters and cardiac autonomic function (CAF) indices among Africans. This study aimed at determining the association between anthropometric parameters and autonomic cardiovascular indices (ACIs) among young adults.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This study was carried out at the Department of Physiological Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 204 apparently healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 40 years. Selection was done by convenient sample technique. The target population was the residents of Obafemi Awolowo University community, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Ethical clearance was obtained from Ethics and Research Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife. Volunteers who consented to participate in the study were informed about the CAF tests through an enlightenment talk and then subjected to clinical screening procedure. The clinical screening entailed history taking and physical examination. During this time, the subjects were evaluated to exclude cardiovascular diseases. The blood pressure (BP) (in millimeters of mercury), weight (kg), and height (m and cm) were measured using digital sphygmomanometer (The Lumiscope Company, Inc., China), ZT120 Health Scale, and stadiometer, respectively. The BMI was calculated from height (m) and weight (kg) and BSA was calculated from the weight (kg) and height (cm) using Mosteller formula. All subjects were confirmed to have normal sinus rhythm by electrocardiography (ECG). The tests were performed after 5 min of relaxation. No intake of coffee, tobacco, alcohol, and medications were allowed 24 h before the tests. Subjects also had resting ECG recorded to exclude asymptomatic cardiac rhythm disorder. Each participant performed CAF tests consisting of BP response to standing, BP response to sustained handgrip (SH), heart rate (HR) response to Valsalva maneuver, HR variation with deep breathing, and HR response to standing. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 software. Relationship between nominal and categorical variables was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
| Results|| |
A total of 204 young adults (98 men, 106 women) between the ages of 18 and 40 years participated in the study. The mean age in years, weight in kilogram, height in meters, BMI in kg/m 2, and BSA in m 2 ± standard deviation of the participants were 22.45 ± 4.86, 59.86 ± 10.05, 1.66 ± 0.08, 21.08 ± 3.41, and 1.66 ± 0.16, respectively.
Height positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to posture, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) response to SH, tachycardia ratio, bradycardia ratio, and HDB, but negatively correlated with Valsalva ratio, 30:15 ratio, and resting HR (RHR). Weight positively correlated with postural change in SBP, DBP response to SH at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, Valsalva ratio, bradycardia ratio, and 30:15 ratio, but negatively correlated with tachycardia ratio, HR response to deep breathing, and RHR [Table 1]. Height significantly correlated with DBP response to SH (r = 0.143, P = 0.041). RHR showed a significant correlation to height (r = −0.152, P = 0.030) and weight (r = −0.153, P = 0.029).
|Table 1: Association between height or weight and autonomic cardiovascular indices|
Click here to view
Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed to assess the relationship between BMI or BSA and ACIs. BMI positively correlated with SBP response to change of posture, Valsalva ratio, bradycardia ratio, and 30:15 ratio, but negatively correlated with DBP response to SH, tachycardia ratio, RHR, and HR response to deep breathing. BSA positively correlated with postural change in SBP, DBP response to SH, Valsalva ratio, bradycardia ratio, and 30:15 ratio, but negatively correlated with tachycardia ratio, HR responses to deep breathing, and RHR [Table 2]. BMI significantly correlated with tachycardia ratio (r = −0.147, P = 0.036) and HR response to deep breathing (r = −0.153, P = 0.029) whereas BSA significantly correlated with RHR (r = −0.182, P = 0.009).
|Table 2: Association between body mass index or body surface area and autonomic cardiovascular indices|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The BP response mainly reflects sympathetic tone whereas the HR response mainly reflects parasympathetic tone. In this present study, height positively correlated with postural change in SBP, DBP response to SH, tachycardia and bradycardia ratios. Height negatively correlated with Valsalva ratio, 30:15 ratio, and RHR. Weight positively correlated with postural change in SBP, DBP response to SH, Valsalva ratio, bradycardia ratio, and 30:15 ratio. Weight negatively correlated with tachycardia ratio, HR changes with respiration, and RHR. Moreover, BMI positively correlated with postural change in SBP, Valsalva ratio, bradycardia ratio, and 30:15 ratio. BMI negatively correlated with DBP response to SH, tachycardia ratio, RHR, and HR response to deep breathing. BSA positively correlated with postural change in SBP, DBP response to SH, Valsalva ratio, bradycardia ratio, and 30:15 ratio. BSA negatively correlated with tachycardia ratio, HR changes with respiration, and RHR. These findings supported an association (weak) between anthropometry and tones of autonomic system (sympathetic and parasympathetic). This was in concordance with the findings of Sztajzel et al ., 2009 who reported a significant association between obesity and HR variability in women. Similarly, Peterson et al . in 1988 reported depressions in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity which were significantly but weakly associated with increasing percentages of body fat. Davy and Orr, 2009, also described relationship between sympathetic activity and weight changes while emphasizing the role of sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis.
In the evaluation of altered CAF across different levels of BMI among 1437 participants (underweight = 74, normal weight = 588, overweight = 313, obesity Class 1 = 390 and Class II = 72), it was observed that CAF altered significantly among overweight and obesity toward increase in sympathetic tone and a decrease in parasympathetic modulation of the heart. Underweight was not apparently associated with a significant alteration in CAF. No previous study revealed that CAF tests had been indexed based on the body anthropometric measures. This may be so because of the weak association between the anthropometric parameters and the ACIs as demonstrated in this study.
| Conclusion|| |
This study demonstrated that weight, height, BMI, and BSA correlated weakly with most of the indices of CAF, as such may not need indexation in young adults.
Limitations of the study
This study was primarily limited by the age group (18-40 years) recruited for evaluation. Increasing the range of the age group to involve middle aged and elderly could have been more appropriate, especially since the incidence of ailments that affect autonomic nervous system increases with age. Doing this will require more financial and time commitments as majority of the participants may drop out of the study at screening stage due to the presence of cardiovascular diseases in the age group above 40 years.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Ogunlade O, Adalumo OA. Mean values, normal limits and sex differences of anthropometry of young adults in a University Community in Nigeria. Am J Clin Exp Med 2015;3:44-7.
Lean ME, Han TS, Bush H, Anderson AS, Bradby H, Williams R. Ethnic differences in anthropometric and lifestyle measures related to coronary heart disease risk between South Asian, Italian and general-population British women living in the west of Scotland. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1800-5.
Ogunlade O, Asafa MA. Pattern and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among young adult Nigerians. Am J Biomed Life Sci 2015;3:12-5.
Jousilahti P, Tuomilehto J, Vartiainen E, Pekkanen J, Puska P. Body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary mortality 15-year follow-up of middle-aged men and women in eastern Finland. Circulation 1996;93:1372-9.
Tuppad S, Jangam S. Relation between weight, height, glycemic status and parasympathetic functions in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Natl J Med Res 2014;4:68-70.
Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: A 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968-77.
Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. Bethesda, MD.: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH; 1998. p. 98-4083.
Cuspidi C, Meani S, Negri F, Giudici V, Valerio C, Sala C, et al.
Indexation of left ventricular mass to body surface area and height to allometric power of 2.7: Is the difference limited to obese hypertensives? J Hum Hypertens 2009;23:728-34.
Liao Y, Cooper RS, Durazo-Arvizu R, Mensah GA, Ghali JK. Prediction of mortality risk by different methods of indexation for left ventricular mass. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:641-7.
Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL. Indices of relative weight and obesity. J Chronic Dis 1972;25:329-43.
Mosteller RD. Simplified calculation of body-surface area. N
Engl J Med 1987;317:1098.
Sztajzel J, Golay A, Makoundou V, Lehmann TN, Barthassat V, Sievert K, et al.
Impact of body fat mass extent on cardiac autonomic alterations in women. Eur J Clin Invest 2009;39:649-56.
Peterson HR, Rothschild M, Weinberg CR, Fell RD, McLeish KR, Pfeifer MA. Body fat and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. N
Engl J Med 1988;318:1077-83.
Davy KP, Orr JS. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2009;33:116-24.
Wu JS, Lu FH, Yang YC, Lin TS, Huang YH, Wu CH, et al.
Epidemiological evidence of altered cardiac autonomic function in overweight but not underweight subjects. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008;32:788-94.
[Table 1], [Table 2]