|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 159-160
Radiological signs on orbital imaging of immunoglobulin G4-related disease
Sunny Chi Lik Au, Edwin Chan
Department of Ophthalmology, Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, HKSAR, Hong Kong
|Date of Submission||07-Oct-2019|
|Date of Decision||08-Dec-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||10-Dec-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||20-Jun-2020|
Dr. Sunny Chi Lik Au
9/F, MO Office, Lo Ka Chow Memorial Ophthalmic Centre, Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, 19 Eastern Hospital Road, Causeway Bay, HKSAR
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has strong organ predilections, and orbital involvement is not rare. Eyelid puffiness with erythema, extraocular movement deficit with proptosis are common presentations, which could sometimes mimic thyroid-associated orbitopathy. With a better understanding on orbital radiology, these “hot eyes” could be managed better.
Keywords: Computed tomography, immunoglobulin G4-related disease, proptosis
|How to cite this article:|
Lik Au SC, Chan E. Radiological signs on orbital imaging of immunoglobulin G4-related disease. Arch Med Health Sci 2020;8:159-60
A 45-year-old female presented with bilateral puffy eyelid swelling and proptosis. She had a recent history of salivary gland swelling and cervical lymphadenopathy, with submandibular gland biopsy showing dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in plasma cells. Immunostaining showed IgG4/IgG ratio >40%, with IgG4+ plasma cell count of 80–100/high-power field. Serum IgG4 level was elevated 4.456 g/L (laboratory reference range: 0.168–1.000). Orbital computed tomography revealed proptosis, lacrimal glands, and orbital soft tissue swelling. Extraocular muscles were swollen without tendon sparing, and bilateral infraorbital nerves were enlarged together with the bony infraorbital canal [Figure 1]. Biopsy of the lacrimal gland revealed similar immunohistopathological findings as above and confirmed the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD).
|Figure 1: Coronal cut of computed tomography of orbit showing bilateral enlarged infraorbital nerve and bony canal. Left proptosis is evidenced by the relatively anterior position of the left globe resulted from orbital soft tissue swelling|
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Proptosis could be unilateral arising from localized pathology or bilateral due to systemic inflammatory diseases. Unilateral pseudoproptosis could occur when there is enophthalmos over the contralateral eye, such as in orbital blowout fracture or phthisis bulbi [Figure 2]. Common etiology of unilateral proptosis includes orbital cellulitis, elongated eyeball in high myopia, and space-occupying lesion within or of the bony orbit. In contrast, bilateral proptosis is commonly seen in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), IgG4-related ophthalmic disease, or idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease. TAO usually gives the characteristic of swelling of extraocular muscle belly with tendon sparing, which differentiates it from IgG4-RD. Lagophthalmos must be addressed in proptotic eye, to prevent corneal exposure keratopathy.
|Figure 2: Another immunoglobulin G4-related disease patient, with a history of childhood left eye trauma resulting in phthisis bulbi, got right eye pseudoproptosis progressing to genuine proptosis. Hyperdensity over the left phthisical eye highlights the calcification inside|
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Infraorbital nerve enlargement is an uncommon radiological sign and strongly relates to IgG4-RD. Histologically, mainly the epineurium was involved by the inflammatory process, whereas perineurium and nerve fascicules were spared. The presence of infraorbital nerve enlargement correlates with proptosis, diffuse, and inferiorly located orbital inflammation, with a higher rate of steroid dependency and recurrence. However, associated medical history is important, as enlargement of infraorbital canal could also be seen after maxillary sinus surgery.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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