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  Most popular articles (Since June 21, 2013)

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Knowledge on management of anemia during pregnancy: A descriptive study
Ashly Baby, Jeevan Venugopal, Renita D'silva, Shantia Chacko, PV Vineesha, T Vinaya Kumary
July-December 2014, 2(2):140-144
Background of the study: The growing fetus depends entirely on its mother's healthy body for all needs. However, sometimes it can be a time of fear of suffering and death, in case women begin pregnancy with low or absent stores of iron because of previous pregnancy, poor iron intake, substance abuse; increased fetal demands of iron leads to iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition in the world and is the eighth leading cause of death in pregnant women in developing countries leading to the low birth weight, which is in turn an important risk factor for infant mortality. Objectives: To determine the knowledge of antenatal mothers regarding management of anemia during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Non-experimental descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge of antenatal mothers from Yenepoya Medical College Hospital. A sample size consists of 50 antenatal mothers were selected through non-probability purposive sampling. The data was collected by using pretested structured knowledge questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions. Results: The majority of the antenatal mothers (54%) had satisfactory knowledge, 38% had poor knowledge, and 8% had good knowledge regarding anemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: The overall knowledge in the study population was 29.9%. Hence, the researcher emphasizes the need for more research to improve the knowledge of antenatal mothers on anemia during pregnancy.
  10,883 815 2
The level of stress and coping mechanism adopted by I Year B.Sc. nursing students
C Viji Prasad, Amrutha Suresh, Dina K Thomas, MK Pritty, Sumaida Beebi, Vijapura Multazim
January-June 2013, 1(1):19-23
Background: Stress is a fact of life that every human deals with on a daily basis. In the transitional nature of student life in professional courses like nursing, initial period of course is stressful and it adversely affects the emotional, physical, social, and academic functions. Even though the perception and response to stress and way of coping differs individually, it may produce questionable behavioral patterns in student nurses during the course of their study like feeling of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness, and worrying. Thus, the student nurse faces a lot of challenges and problems at the time of I Year. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the level of stress and coping mechanisms adopted by I Year B.Sc. nursing students. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 I Year B.Sc. nursing students were selected by using non-probability convenient sampling technique. The tools used for data collection were perceived stress scale, structured coping scale, and socio- demographic proforma. Results: The studies revealed that majority of students (95.1%) were in the age group of 17-19 years. The results showed that only one student (1.7%) has severe stress, 46.7% has moderate stress, and remaining 51.6% has mild stress, and majority of the students (100) had average coping. There was no significant correlation (-1.167) between stress and coping mechanism of I Year B.Sc. nursing students. Conclusion: Majority of students had mild stress and average coping. The nurse administrator should plan and organize educational program for nursing students, in order to prepare them to cope up with any stressful situations. Hence, the researcher emphasizes the need for more research to improve the knowledge and by applying the research finding for future.
  8,210 866 1
Safe surgical practices and asepsis
Ravindra M Shenoy, Archana Shenoy
January-June 2013, 1(1):38-45
Surgical care has become highly specialized because of scientific advances. It is now possible to handle many health problems successfully with the help of newer and innovative methods. However, to deliver care safely to patients as well as prevent harm to the personnel delivering the same, safe practices have to be followed. In developing nations especially, as modern surgical care percolates the masses, ignoring safe surgical practice may cause more harm than good and the surgeon / procedure may even earn disrepute. This article reviews different aspects of current surgical practice with respect to safe surgical care and asepsis.
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Is maternal age risk factor for low birth weight?
Radha Y Aras
January-June 2013, 1(1):33-37
Low birth weight (LBW) is a significant public health concern at global level. LBW is the outcome of interplay of multiple maternal factors. Maternal age is an important variable leading to LBW and preterm births. The literature review was done with extensive search from Medline, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Combined Health Information Database for publications that identified the studies related to maternal age and birth weight. With exception of few studies which concluded that age did not significantly affect birth weight of newborns, majority of research indicated that a very young maternal age is causally implicated with an increased risk of having LBW and preterm births. Little research has been conducted on births to older mothers, even though such births are becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Advancing maternal age is associated with a decreased potential for fetal growth, possibly reflecting biological aging of maternal tissues and systems or the cumulative effects of disease. Results of multivariate analysis showed a U-shaped relationship between maternal age and LBW among whites, with the youngest (younger than 15) and the oldest (aged 40 and older) mothers being at high risk than 25-29 years old; older teenagers were not at any significantly higher risk. For the black, the risk of LBW rose steeply with maternal age (mothers aged 15-19 years are significantly lower risk than those of 25-29 years for LBW infants).
  7,243 856 2
Normative data of Modified Functional Reach Test in younger and middle-aged North Eastern Indian population
Priyanka Singh, Nangteidor Hujon
July-December 2013, 1(2):109-114
Background and Purpose: The modified functional reach test (MFRT) is the objective measure for dynamic sitting balance. It quantifies sitting balance in two directions: Forward and lateral reach. So, the purpose of the study was to 1) provide clinical reference value and 2) examine the factors that may influence the anthropometrics measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy subjects participated in this descriptive study. All subjects were divided in two groups: Younger (20-39 yr) and middle-aged (40-59 yr). After anthropometric measurement, all subjects performed test by reaching forward and lateral with a closed fist while sitting. MFRT was taken with 3 trials with 15 sec break in between. Results: The mean score of the forward and lateral reach of right and left in group 1 was higher compared to group 2. The normative value of forward reach in group 1 was 34.05 ± 9.03 cm; for lateral reach right and left, it was 18.2 ± 5.26 cm and 17.32 ± 5.21 cm, respectively. For group 2, normative values for forward reach, lateral right and left were 25.18 ± 5.71 cm, 14.02 ± 3.98 cm and 13.53 ± 4.25 cm, respectively. There was no significant correlation of forward and lateral reach measures with the anthropometric characteristics in both the groups, except trunk length and BMI in group 1, which was significantly correlated ( P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study provides clinical reference value for younger and middle age group subjects while anthropometrics do not affect performance except trunk length and BMI in younger age group.
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Nasoalveolar molding treatment in presurgical infant orthopedics in cleft lip and cleft palate patients
N. Retnakumari, S. Divya, S. Meenakumari, P. S. Ajith
January-June 2014, 2(1):36-47
The nasoalveolar molding (NAM) technique is a new approach to presurgical infant orthopedics that reduces the severity of the initial cleft alveolar and nasal deformity. This technique facilitates the primary surgical repair of the nose and lip to heal under minimal tension, thereby reducing scar formation and improving the esthetic result. NAM technique is the nonsurgical, passive method of bringing the gum and lip together by redirecting the forces of natural growth. NAM has proved to be an effective adjunctive therapy for reducing hard and soft tissue cleft deformity before surgery. This paper reviews the basic principles of NAM therapy, various types of appliances used in this therapy, protocol followed, and a critical evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. Universally authors have agreed the positive outcome of NAM for better esthetics after cleft lip and palate (CLP) repair, but the long-term effects of this therapy are yet to be substantiated. Despite a relative paucity of high-level evidence, NAM appears to be a promising technique that deserves further research.
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Perceived stress among medical students: To identify its sources and coping strategies
Shubhada Gade, Suresh Chari, Madhur Gupta
January-June 2014, 2(1):80-86
Context: Stress in medical education is common and process-oriented. It often exerts a negative effect on their academic performance, physical health, and psychological well being. Aims: This study aims at identification of such susceptible students in the early stage i.e. first year of medical education, and to provide them essential support in the form of an intervention program to lessen the negative consequences of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the First MBBS students of NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Nagpur, India. A 41-item questionnaire was designed to assess the sources of stress and their severity. Likert's 5-point scale was used to quantify the extent of severity on each item. Coping strategies adopted by students were assessed by using a 22-item stress inventory, and a questionnaire based on 19 institutional stress-reducing factors was used to identify its role. Results: The survey resulted into an overall response rate of 87% (131 out of 150 students). Median stress level based on 41 items was evaluated for each student. About 29% (40 students) had median stress level greater than 3. Female students were more stressed (17.19%) than male students (14.93%). The study revealed that students generally adopt active coping strategies rather than avoidant strategies like alcohol and drug abuse. The study indicated that emotional support system is a major stress-relieving factor for students. Conclusion: Prevalence of perceived stress is high among medical students. It seems that academic-related problems are greater perceived stressors. Review of academics, exam schedules and patterns, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, intervention programs and counseling could certainly help a lot to reduce stress in medical students.
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A rare case of persistent metopic suture in an elderly individual: Incidental autopsy finding with clinical implications
S Vikram, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Aswini R. Dutt
January-June 2014, 2(1):61-63
Metopic suture is a dense fibrous joint extending from the nasion to the bregma. Normally, closure of this suture takes place between 1-8 years of age. Failure of this closure beyond 8 years leads to persistent metopic suture. A rare case of persistent metopic suture in a 60-year-old male is documented, who committed suicide by alleged consumption of organophosphorous compound at District Govt. Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Metopic suture may mimic skull fracture and may mislead an inexperienced forensic expert. Neurosurgeon should also be aware of this anatomical variation while performing frontal craniotomy, as the persistent metopic suture may mimic vertical fracture of the skull. Hence, in this case report, the clinical and medico-legal implications of the persistent metopic sutures have been discussed.
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Moving toward competency-based education: Challenges and the way forward
Thomas V Chacko
July-December 2014, 2(2):247-253
This article aims at giving a broad overview on competency-based education to those who are currently in the predominantly knowledge focused discipline-based curriculum and so are uninitiated to the competency-based educational paradigm. This is done by taking them through the curricular trends in medical education that have happened elsewhere in the world and providing them with a gist of what is competency-based medical education, how it is different from the earlier paradigms of instruction, the advantages that this paradigm of mastery learning presents to help the learner acquire competencies needed for doing the professional tasks and duties that are in alignment with health needs of the country, the framework and the broad steps involved in its implementation, the challenges that its implementation presents particularly with regard to benchmarking for assessment as revealed by the experiences in the Western world that resulted in a three-decade lag between intention to change and actual change and the way forward to overcome these challenges particularly through faculty capacity-building using longitudinal faculty development programs or series of faculty retreats to ensure that it can be successfully implemented and sustained to serve the purpose of producing job-ready professionals.
  4,963 980 2
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An accurate diagnostic tool in the precise localization of penile fracture
Mujeeb M Rahiman, T Manasa, Devadasa Acharya Koteshwara
January-June 2013, 1(1):54-56
An 18-year-old male presented with history and clinical findings suggestive of penile fracture. An MRI demonstrated disruption of the tunica albuginea and corpora cavernosa on the left dorso-lateral aspect, mid-shaft of penis with adjacent hematoma, and subcutaneous edema. At surgery, imaging findings were found to be accurate, and the penis was successfully repaired with minimal postoperative morbidity.
  5,324 224 1
Radiologic features of intraosseous hemangioma: A diagnostic challenge
Preethi Balan, Subhas Babu Gogineni, Shishir Ram Shetty, Fazil K. Areekat
January-June 2014, 2(1):67-70
Intraosseous vascular lesions are rare conditions, comprising only 0.5% to 1% of all intraosseous tumors. They present with variable and atypical radiographic appearances. Because of this variation, no pathognomonic sign exists that can be used to make a definite clinical diagnosis of these tumors. But, early diagnosis of central hemangioma is essential for preventing uncontrollable hemorrhage and even death during biopsy or surgery. The purpose of this article is to stress on the importance of radiology in the timely diagnosis of such lesions, which can prevent the disaster not only to the patient but also to oral surgeon in legal and professional aspects.
  5,223 303 -
Effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge and practices of staff nurses on prevention of intravenous cannulae complications
Kanishka George, Bharti Muninarayanappa
July-December 2013, 1(2):115-119
Infectious rates and peripheral intravenous cannulae-associated complications are very common in patients with intravenous therapy. This study was aimed to assess the incidence of intravenous cannulae complications among patients after 72 hours in situ and to examine the impact of structured teaching program on knowledge and practices of staff nurses. In this study, researcher used descriptive and quasi-experimental approach; a non-probability convenient sampling technique was adopted to select 80 staff nurses, each 40 in experimental and 40 in control group. 67.79% of patients developed peripheral intravenous cannulae-related complications with grade 1 (33.05%) and grade 2 (34.74%) complications. Result revealed that it was highly significant at 0.05 level (t = 9.978; P < 0.05) for knowledge and not significant (t = 0.974; P > 0.05) for practice. The post-test knowledge found to be highly significant at 0.05 level (t = 3.909; P < 0.05), whereas practice score was not significant (t = 0.426; P > 0.05). It could be inferred that there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test practice score of staff nurses who attended the structured teaching program regarding prevention of intravenous cannulae complications.
  4,532 466 2
Asymptomatic reversible lesion on tongue: A case series in pediatric patients
Vela D Desai, Swati Phore, Pallavi Baghla
January-June 2015, 3(1):113-116
Tongue is a sensitive organ of the oral cavity that is responsible for many vital functions like taste, swallowing, speech, mastication, speaking and breathing. Geographic tongue is a frequently encountered oral condition with a controversial etiology. Since it is an asymptomatic condition known to resolve completely on its own, it is usually discovered during routine clinical examinations. Furthermore, it warrants treatment only when it becomes symptomatic. It can be present on any surface of the tongue but the commonest site is dorsal surface, where it characteristically presents with a migratory pattern that changes in location. This case report describes the uncommon occurrence of the tongue lesion diagnosed in children which is seldom reported in the pediatric literature.
  4,764 164 -
Magnets in dentistry
Vidya S Bhat, K Kamalakanth Shenoy, Priyanka Premkumar
January-June 2013, 1(1):73-79
Magnets have generated great interest within dentistry. They have been used for various applications in orthodontics and prosthodontics. Earlier use of magnets was limited due to the unavailability of small size magnets, but after the introduction of rare earth magnets and their availability in smaller sizes, their use has increased considerably. They can be placed within prostheses without being obtrusive in the mouth. Their main use in orthodontics has been for tooth movement and in prosthodontics has been in maxillofacial prosthesis and in overdentures as retentive aids. This article reviews the types of magnets available and their application in maxillofacial prosthesis and overdentures, followed by other advantages and disadvantages.
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Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria
Maria B Cyriac, Vidya Pai, Manjula Shantaram, Maji Jose
July-December 2013, 1(2):126-130
Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera) are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.
  4,296 466 -
Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among a tribal population in Tamil Nadu
Shankar Radhakrishnan, Manivanan Ekambaram
January-June 2015, 3(1):66-71
Background: Diabetes and hypertension is affecting at an alarming rate in both rural and urban populations in India and very few studies had been carried out among the tribal population. Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension and its associated risk factors among the tribal population in Salem District in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A total of about 525 tribal population above 40 years of age from various tribal places in Yercaud. All of them were screened for diabetes, by checking the random blood glucose levels and blood pressure, body mass index, dietary patterns, and physical activity levels were also recorded. Their knowledge about diabetes was also assessed by a set of 10 questions. Results: Among the study population, people who had RBS ΃ 200 was 28 (male = 11 and female = 17) and between 140 and 200 were 39 (male = 18 and female = 21) and people whose were in the prehypertensive stage was 185 (males 92 and female 93) and people in the stage 1 hypertension was 102 (male = 47 and female = 54) and in stage 2 hypertension was 64 (male = 33 and female = 29). The co-morbidity (diabetes and hypertension) was present in among 45 (male = 25 and female = 20). Among the study population only 1 was obese and 39 were overweight. Among the various risk factors smoking, alcohol and positive family history were found to have a statistical significant association for males whereas among females only the family history was found to have a statistically significant association for both diabetes and hypertension. The knowledge of diabetes among the study population was very poor. None of them were aware about the normal levels of blood sugar and the risk factors. Conclusion: The study documented that the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension is increasingly high in the tribal areas and their awareness levels were very poor.
  4,444 241 -
Anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves in Swiss albino mice
Anu Elizabeth Joy, Shankar Bhat Kunhikatta, Shyamjith Manikkoth
January-June 2013, 1(1):6-9
Objectives : To investigate the anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves on maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods : The ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves (200 mg/kg, i.p) was studied for its anti-convulsant effect on MES and PTZ-induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. In MES seizures, suppression of tonic hind limb extension was noted. In PTZ seizures, abolition of the convulsions was noted. Results : The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Moringa concanensis (200 mg/kg, i.p) significantly (P < 0.001) abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES. The same dose also significantly (P < 0.001) protected the animals from PTZ-induced tonic convulsions. Conclusion : The data suggests that the ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves may produce its anti-convulsant effects via multiple mechanisms since it abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES as well as abolished seizures produced by PTZ.
  4,234 360 1
Field cancerization: A review
M Aparna, Prashanth Shenai, Laxmikanth Chatra, KM Veena, Prasanna Kumar Rao, Rachana V Prabhu, KA Shahin
July-December 2013, 1(2):136-139
Concept of field cancerization was first introduced over six decades ago in the setting of oral cancer. Later, field cancerization involving histologic and molecular changes of neoplasms and adjacent tissue was explained. Field cancerization involves the lateral spread of pre-malignant or malignant disease and contributes to the recurrence of head and neck tumors. The overall hypothesis underlying this work is that endothelial cells actively participate in tumor cell invasion by secreting chemokines and creating a chemotactic gradient for tumor cells. The article tries to explain the conflicting aspects of field cancerization in the setting of oral cancer.
  3,427 886 3
Antianxiety effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera in Swiss albino mice
Shankar K. Bhat, Anu Elizabeth Joy
January-June 2014, 2(1):5-7
Background: Anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental ailments exhibited by humans. It can cause considerable distress and debility. Anxiety is portrayed as a frame of mind concerned about future in association with preparation for possible, upcoming undesirable happenings. The present treatment for the disorder is having a lot of side-effects. An agent with good therapeutic effect and less side-effects is needed for the treatment of anxiety. Objectives: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera (200 mg/kg, i.p) was studied for its anxiolytic effect on Swiss albino mice by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Light Dark Arena (LDA) test. Results: The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera (200 mg/kg, i.p) demonstrated significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety. Conclusion: The data suggests that the ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves may have produced its anxiolytic effects via multiple mechanisms.
  3,893 390 -
Awareness, practices, and prevalence of hypertension among rural Nigerian women
Samuel O. Azubuike, Rahab Kurmi
January-June 2014, 2(1):23-28
Background: High blood pressure is on the rise globally, affecting more women than men in many developing countries. It is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and hospitalization in sub-Saharan Africa. Many known risk factors to hypertension, though prevalent in Nigeria, are controllable. Prevention, however, is difficult where there is poor awareness, attitude, and practices. Objectives: The study aims at determining the level of knowledge of hypertension and its associated factors, attitudes, practices, and prevalence among rural Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional design was used to study 252 subjects in Sanga Local Government Area. Subject selection was by purposive and stratified sampling techniques. Data were collected using self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire after informed consents were obtained both verbally and in writing. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Level of significant was taken at 0.05. Results: Prevalence of hypertension was 24.2%. Average level of risk factor awareness was 65.4% with excessive salt intake (77.4%) being the most recognized. Asymptomatic nature of hypertension was recognized by 61.5% of the respondents, while 44.4% only knew the standard method for hypertension detection. While 17.5% strongly believed that hypertension can be managed effectively with drugs, it was only 9.1% that strongly disagreed that it could be caused by evil spirits. The average number of those with good preventive life style practices was 61.3%. Knowledge was associated with several factors and seems to affect practices (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fair but inadequate level of knowledge and attitudes affected by several factors, as well as moderately high prevalence was recorded.
  3,822 434 4
Plant growth nutrient (nitrobenzene) poisoning with multiple complications
Yatendra Singh, Makrand Singh, Sandeep Raj Saxena, Khalil Mohammad
January-June 2015, 3(1):97-100
Nitrobenzene, a pale yellow oily liquid with an odor of bitter almonds, is used in the synthesis of Aniline dyes, flavoring agent, and also in rubber industry. Recently it is also used as a plant growth nutrient. It causes methemoglobinemia with symptoms including headache, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, cyanosis, and convulsions. Severe acute exposure to nitrobenzene can cause jaundice, renal failure, and coma, and it may be fatal. We report a case of Plant growth nutrient (nitrobenzene) poisoning with multiple complications like hemolytic anemia, renal failure, seizures, and pneumonia. Patient was managed with intravenous methylene blue along with other supportive therapy and survived. So, early aggressive management and a watch on complications might be helpful in saving patient's life from this poisoning.
  4,050 183 -
Dental ergonomics: Basic steps to enhance work efficiency
Abdul Rahim Shaik
January-June 2015, 3(1):138-144
The nature of the dental profession and the postures assumed by the dental surgeons during their professional work has a huge impact on the dental surgeon's body and carries with it a high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). To perform efficiently and effectively, they shall always like to attain a position that allows them to achieve optimum access, visibility, comfort, and control at all times. Good ergonomic design of the workplace is a basic requirement for facilitating the balanced musculoskeletal health that will enable longer, healthier career, enhance productivity, and minimize MSDs among dental surgeons. While treating the patients, they are concerned about patients' comfort and pay little attention to their own health till they begin to experience discomfort in their body. With a little attention and creativity, dental surgeons can improve their comfort on the job during the course of their career.
  3,478 374 -
History of dentistry
Akhter Hussain, Faizan Ahmed Khan
January-June 2014, 2(1):106-110
  3,224 601 1
Ectopic premolar tooth in the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature
KS Gangadhara Somayaji, Aroor Rajeshwary, Mohammad Nalapad Abdulla, Sherwak Ramlan
January-June 2013, 1(1):48-51
Ectopic eruption of teeth in non-dental sites is a rare phenomenon and such cases have been reported to occur in the nasal cavity, chin, maxillary sinus, mandible, palate, and orbital cavity. Ectopic tooth eruptions in maxillary sinus are usually asymptomatic or may present with recurrent sinusitis. Majority are found incidentally during routine clinical or radiological investigation. We present a case of an ectopic upper second premolar tooth that caused chronic purulent sinusitis in relation to the right maxillary sinus. The tooth was attached to the posterior wall of the sinus without an associated dentigerous cyst. The case was innovatively managed by endoscopic approach through sublabial route.
  3,511 250 1
Surgical outcomes following ocular re-alignment in various types of squints
Vidya Hegde, Anupama Bappal, Neelam Puthran
January-June 2013, 1(1):24-28
Background: Strabismus is one of the causes for visual impairment in childhood. It affects the development of binocular single vision. Therefore, early detection and timely management of strabismus is important. Aim: This study was aimed to describe types of strabismus patients presenting to a tertiary care center and the various management modalities including the surgical outcomes of ocular re-alignment Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart analysis of all patients with strabismus in any age group over a period of 5 years. Patients with cerebral palsy were excluded from this study. Surgical outcomes were graded as good if the eyes were orthophoric post-operatively, satisfactory if there was a residual squint of less than 10 degrees, and it was considered to be a poor outcome if the patients were left with more than 10 degrees of residual squint. Results: Chart analysis of 53 cases with strabismus comprising of 33 males and 20 females was done. The mean age of patients was 25 years. Thirty-two (60%) cases had exotropia, and 14 (26%) had esotropia. Three cases were of congenital superior oblique palsy, and one case was of lateral rectus palsy. Duane syndrome type I was seen in four cases. Of the 38 (72%) patients who were advised surgical correction, only 20 individuals underwent surgery. Reasons for refusal of surgery varied from fear factor to financial constraints and a disregard for cosmesis. Surgeries had been performed on both children (7) as well as adults (13). Seventy-five percent of the operated patients had exotropia. Eighteen patients underwent single-staged surgery. Bilateral recessions were the most common type of surgery noted in this study. Fifty percent of them remained orthophoric up to one year of post-operative follow up. Conclusion: Exotropia was the most common type of strabismus observed in this study. Successful ocular re-alignment was seen in majority of the patients following a single-stage procedure. Greater effort needs to be made to educate the public on need for early diagnosis and management.
  3,442 196 -