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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 173-177

Age estimation of an individual by using Olze's method in South Indian population

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication11-Nov-2014

Correspondence Address:
Prashanth Shenai
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2321-4848.144330

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Background: The present study was conducted to assess age of adults by using Olze's method and also to estimate the efficacy of Olze's method in south Indian population. Materials and Methods: The present study comprised of 25 subjects ranging from 12 to 26 years from Mangalore. Dental age was assessed by using the Olze's method based on upper and lower third molar. Panoramic radiographs were taken for the same. The obtained data were analyzed by using paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient, and regression analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 13 software for statistical analysis. Results: Average chronological age was 16.11. Average age estimated by Olze's method was 16.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two methods showed excellent agreement between the two. Statistical analysis indicated that there is no significant difference between chronological age and age obtained by Olze's method. Conclusion: Olze's method has been experimented by many authors. An attempt was made to apply original method in our population and check its reliability. The present study indicated that, Olze's method was reliable for age estimation in our sample. This method of age estimation was accurate in both males and females.

Keywords: Emergence of third molar, Olze′s method, panoramic radiograph

How to cite this article:
Raj N, Shenai P, Chatra L, Veena K M, Rao PK, Prabhu RV, Shahin K A, Shetty P. Age estimation of an individual by using Olze's method in South Indian population . Arch Med Health Sci 2014;2:173-7

How to cite this URL:
Raj N, Shenai P, Chatra L, Veena K M, Rao PK, Prabhu RV, Shahin K A, Shetty P. Age estimation of an individual by using Olze's method in South Indian population . Arch Med Health Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 Nov 30];2:173-7. Available from: https://www.amhsjournal.org/text.asp?2014/2/2/173/144330

  Introduction Top

Forensic age assessment in living subjects has become increasingly important over the last few years. [1],[2] Estimation of age in individuals has received considerable attention in the forensic scientific literature as well as in archaeological cases. [3] Forensic age diagnostics, though not very new to dental faculty, looks on to legal matters and helps in implementing authorities to decide the further course of investigation in criminal cases. For age estimation; a physical examination, radiograph of the hand as well as dental examination should be performed. If the skeletal development of the hand is completed, an additional radiological examination of the clavicle should be carried out.

One main criterion for dental age estimation in the relevant age group is the evaluation of third molar eruption. The importance of ethnic variation in dental development requires further population studies in order to reach an adjustment of each method according to the specific population, with an increase in precision and accuracy. [4]

Method of chronological age estimation in adolescents and young adults may be including radiographical examination of the hand and wrist, the medial clavicular epiphyseal cartilage, and finally third molar development observations. [3],[5],[6] But compared to bone development, third molar development is less affected by variation in endocrine and nutritional status, and in hand and wrist development it is completed around the age of 18, while third molar development continues until the early twenties when the development of all permanent teeth is likely to be completed, and regressive changes in teeth with increasing age may not yet appear at that age. Therefore, developing third molar is the most reliable biological dental indicators variable and readily assessable from dental radiographs during adolescence and the transitional period to adulthood, indeed a great variation in position, morphology, and time of formation exist. Till now several studies have been undertaken in different populations, these studies show that third molar development varies slightly between different populations, making population-specific studies necessary. Recently, for different ethnic groups, numerous reports have been published on the evaluation of third molar development.

In the present study chronological age estimation among 25 is carried out using Olze's method.

  Materials and Methods Top

The present study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore. The sample size consisted of 25 healthy adults (10 males and 15 females) attending the dental out patient department (OPD) during a period from January to March 2013 and requiring panoramic radiographs for their routine treatment purpose. This population belonged to moderate to high socioeconomic status, and were native of Kerala, south India. The purpose of the research was explained to the subjects and the informed consent was obtained for clinical and radiographic examination. The sample population belonged to the age group of 12-26 yearswith the mean age was 19 years. The patients with good quality radiographs and without any developmental disorders of the teeth were included in the study. Patient with impacted third molars, third molars with unclear direction of eruption (mesially, distally, and horizontally angulated), uncooperative patients, and patients with systemic diseases were excluded from the study.

Chronological age of the patient was calculated from date of birth and date of radiograph being taken; chronological age = (date of radiograph - the date of birth). A standard protocol was followed to examine the patient and the necessary details were recorded using a prepared case history format. Brief clinical findings along with personal details of the patient were recorded. Detailed intraoral examinations especially third molar are screened (single-blinded study). Patients were subjected to digital panoramic radiograph after explaining procedure by using Planmeca ProMax (USA) radiographs were scanned (AGFA 30 XSCANNER) and images were recorded. Then applied to Olze's age estimation char [7] [Table 1] and [Table 2] [8] parameter was recorded in a descriptive statistical manner and evaluated [Table 3] to assess the age, the scores of individual tooth are added up and their mean is calculated to estimate the age. Mean values were compared by using paired t-test and intraclass correlation coefficient regression analysis was done in Statistical Package for Social Sciences 18 (SPSS package ver 18; Raleigh, NC, USA) software for the prediction of chronological age by using Olze's method.
Table 1: Age of emergence of teeth 18, 28, 38, and 48, by stage, in females

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Table 2: Age of emergence of teeth 18, 28, 38, and 48, by stage, in males

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Table 3: Correlation between chronological age and Olze' method

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The eruption stages were evaluated using the classification of stages by Olze's et al., [7] [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Olze's stages of tooth development

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Olze's stages of tooth development:

Stage A: Occlusal plane covered with alveolar bone.

Stage B: Alveolar eruption; complete resorption of alveolar bone over occlusal plane.

Stage C: Gingival emergence; penetration of gingiva by at least one dental cusp.

Stage D: Complete emergence in occlusal plane.

  Results Top

The study population consists of 25 adult patient within the age group 12-26 of 10 male and females, among the males lowest chronological age was 14 years and the highest age was 19 years and among females it was 13 and 19, respectively [Table 4].
Table 4: Comparison of chronologic age and age by Olze's method for males and females

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In this study, the age obtained by Olze's method was found to be higher than the chronological age in six subjects (five females and one male) and lower in three subjects (one female and two males) and around 16 subjects came same as the chronological age.

There was no significant difference between chronologic age and the age by Olze's method (0.631) [Table 5] shows the means and mean differences between the chronologic age (16.11) and age obtained using Olze's method is 16.05.
Table 5: Statistical significant difference between chronological age and age with Olze's method both in males (M) and females (F)

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The interclass correlation was 0.969 [Table 6], which was highly significant agreement between the two. There was no significant difference between chronological age and age with Olze's method both in males (M) and females (F) [Table 6]. The interclass correlation was 0.984 for females and 0.983 for males, which showed excellent agreement (>0.85) [Figure 2].
Table 6: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)

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Figure 2: Graphical presentation of intraclass correlation coefficient

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  Discussion Top

Different radiographic methods for age estimation in children has been tried and tested till date. However, not many radiographic age estimation methods has been experimented among adolescents, Olze's method of radiographic age estimation proves to be an accepted method for radiographic age estimation among adolescence according to the results of the present study.

We applied Olze's method in adult individuals from Mangalore and it showed good correlation with chronological age of the individual.

Tooth eruption is a parameter of developmental morphology, which, unlike tooth mineralization, can be determined in two ways: By clinical examination and/or by evaluation of dental radiographs. While 'eruption' incorporates the entire journey of the tooth from its formation in the alveolar crypts to full occlusion, 'emergence' is restricted to the time when any part of the tooth finally clears the gingival margin and becomes visible in the mouth until the stage when the tooth finally comes into occlusion with its partner tooth from the opposing jaw. [9] Only a few studies have been carried out on the chronology of third molar eruption still now.

A study was conducted in 1967 investigated the clinical emergence of third molars of males and females ranging in age from 16 to 24, which shows the third molars of the male subjects emerged roughly 1.5 years earlier than those of the females. [10]

A survey carried out in 1981 determined the age of alveolar and gingival eruption and mineralization state of the third molars of Franco-Canadians of ages ranging from 7 to 25 years. Based on evidence from orthopantomograms, study states that alveolar eruption of the third molars occurred 0.2 years earlier and gingival emergence occurred 0.5 years earlier in the males than in the females. [11]

A study conducted and analyzed third molar emergence of male and female German subjects of ages ranging from 16 to 40 years. Which shows the presence of third molars was first detected in the group of 17 year olds and more than 50% of the complete set of third molars had emerged by the age of 21 years. [12]

A study analyzed and compared the chronological course of third molar eruption in German, Japanese, and South African populations. They found that the investigated German population has an intermediate rate of dental development as determined by comparing the different ages of third molar eruption. The defined eruption stages occurred at earlier ages in the investigated South African population, and at later ages in the Japanese population. The South African males were a mean of 3.0-3.2 years younger than the German males at these stages of development, and the Japanese males were a mean of 3.1-4.2 years older than their South African counterparts. The South African women reached the target stages a mean of 1.6-1.8 years earlier than the German women, whereas, the Japanese women were a mean of 0.9-3.3 years older than their German counterparts. [7]

A study was conducted to determine the stages of third molar eruption in 347 female and 258 male First Nations People of Canada aged 11-29 years based on radiological evidence from 605 conventional orthopantomograms. The results which provide data on the age of alveolar, gingival, and complete eruption of the third molars in the occlusal plane that can be used for forensic estimation of the minimum and most probable ages of investigated individuals. [8]

Even though the results obtained in the present study seems to be a reliable mode of age estimation, sample size is on the lower side. Hence, further studies with more subjects among different ethnic groups is needed before establishing the result on a broad platform.

  Conclusion Top

The results of our study using Olze's method showed a good assessment of dental age in Mangalorean young adults, although there are under- and overestimation in literature. Statistically there is no significant differences found between males and females. Olze's method has not given exact age in every individuals, but it can be clinically accepted with regard to accuracy and ease of assessment. Age estimation was found to be better in males when compared to females according to the results of present study. It also provides data on the age of alveolar, gingival, and complete eruption of the third molars in the occlusal plane that can be used for dental age estimation.

  References Top

1.Willems G. A review of the most commonly used dental age estimation techniques. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2001;19:9-17.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Teivens A, Mörnstad H. A comparison between dental maturity rate in the Swedish and Korean populations using a modified Demirjian method. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2001;19:31-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Schiling A, Olze A, Resinger and Geserick G. Age estimation of living people undergoing criminal proceedings. Lancet 2001;358:89-90 .  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Cunha E, Baccino E, Martrille L, Ramsthaler F, Prieto J, Schuliar Y, et al. The problem of aging human remains and living individuals: A review. Forensic Sci Int 2009;193:1-13.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Kreitner KF, Schweden FJ, Riepert T, Nafe B, Thelen M. Bone age determination based on the study of the medial extremity of the clavicle. Eur Radiol 1998;8:1116-22.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Olze A, Schmeling A, Taniguchi M, Maeda H, van Niekerk P, Wernecke KD, et al. Forensic age estimation in living subjects: the ethnic factor inwisdom teeth mineralization. Int J Legal Med 2004;118:170-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Olze A, van Niekerk P, Ishikawa T, Zhu BL, Schulz R, Madea H, et al. Comparative study on the effect of ethnicity on wisdom tooth eruption. Int J Legal Med 2007;121:445-8  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Schmeling A, Olze A, Pynn BR, Kraul V, Schulz R, Heinecke A, et al. Dental age estimation based on third molar eruption in first nation people of Canada. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2010;28:32-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Scheuer L, Black S. Developmental Juvenile Osteology. London: Academic Press; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Rantanen AV. The age of eruption of the third molar teeth. Acta Odontol Scand 1967;25(Suppl):1-86.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Levesque GY, Demirijian A, Tanguay R. Sexual dimorphism in the development, emergence, and agenesis of the mandibular third molar. J Dent Res 1981;60:1735-41.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Muller HR. A study about the inconstancy of the third Molars (absence, angulation, breakthrough). MD Thesis, Medical School Dresden.1983.  Back to cited text no. 12


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]


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