Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contact us Login 
  • Users Online:128
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 266-273

A narrative review of global perspective on illicit drug utilization and substance use disorders


Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission02-Nov-2022
Date of Acceptance30-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication23-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Paila Bhanujirao
6-396, 10th Line, NTR Colony, Tekkali, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/amhs.amhs_258_22

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Drug addiction and abuse are major public health issues across the globe that impact millions of people. Substance abuse and dependence seem to have been relatively high among university students and laborers and comparatively low among school students. Drugs used by the person for nonintended reasons, mainly for their psychoactive effects termed as drug abuse. Continued use of alcohol, illegal drugs, or prescription or over-the-counter medications harms health, employment, family, and law. When it comes to illicit substance usage, possession, and trafficking, every nation has its unique set of laws. The frequency of lifetime drug usage in 2015 was 5%, according to the most current World Drug Report. There is reason to be concerned about the high rates of drug and alcohol addiction among youths because of the substantial problems that have been linked to such use, including higher rates of aggression, suicidal attempts, etc., In this narrative review, we have focused on illicit drugs, substance use, its negative impacts among youths and its prevalence among youths nationally and internationally, and also some prevention strategies to control substance use.

Keywords: Cannabis, drug laws, drug utilization, drugs, illicit drugs, substance use


How to cite this article:
Bhanujirao P, Salari S, Behzad P, Salari T. A narrative review of global perspective on illicit drug utilization and substance use disorders. Arch Med Health Sci 2022;10:266-73

How to cite this URL:
Bhanujirao P, Salari S, Behzad P, Salari T. A narrative review of global perspective on illicit drug utilization and substance use disorders. Arch Med Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 6];10:266-73. Available from: https://www.amhsjournal.org/text.asp?2022/10/2/266/364970




  Introduction Top


Addiction to drugs, whether legal or illegal, is a serious social health issue that affects millions of individuals throughout the world. The societal costs of drug addiction include those to society's health (including the expenses of drug prevention and treatment, medical care, and hospitals), safety, the environment, and workers' productivity.[1] More than half of the evidence submitted to a crime laboratory is related to drugs, and the laboratory's drug department is often the largest in terms of space, forensic scientists, equipment, and case submissions. This situation has persisted well for over half a century. The government has been fighting the drug problem for nearly a century now on many fronts, including helping other countries crack down on drug production and cultivation, intercepting drug shipments from other countries, cracking down on drug production and sales within the countries, and implementing youth and adult drug abuse prevention programs. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of these procedures has been inadequate over time, and in fact, only a small proportion of international drug shipments are captured at borders. The misuse of several drug classes is now greater than ever in the United States, where drug usage has not decreased. Even Indian Justice Department officials have recently acknowledged that the alleged “war on drugs” has mostly failed and needs to be scaled down.[2]

Drugs and the laws

The Opium Act of 1857, which went into effect to control the cultivation of opium poppy and the manufacture of opium, was one of the former major Acts that the Government of India consolidated to exercise strict control over narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances (NDPS) in India as specified by the United Nations conventions. The import and export of opium and poppy heads were controlled by the Indian government.[3] The Opium Act was passed by colonial India in the hopes of lowering opium usage. According to the new law, only Chinese and Indian opium consumers are allowed to buy opium, and Burmese opium users are categorically forbidden from doing so. Shanghai and Tientsin serve as refineries for most of the illicit heroin brought into the United States from China. The North-East Indian province of Assam has outlawed the growing of opium.

The Indian Parliament replaced the Opium Act of 1857, the Opium Act of 1878, and the Dangerous Drugs Act of 1930 with the more comprehensive Psychotropic Substances and Narcotic Drugs Act of 1985.

In India, the Psychotropic Substance and Narcotic Drugs Act of 1985 provides the legal foundation for drug policing. The Opium Act of 1857, the Opium Act of 1878, and the Dangerous Drugs Act of 1930 are all combined into one Act, which replaces the former primary Act. The NDPS Act also includes clauses intended to carry out India's commitments under several international conventions. The Act underwent some substantial revisions in 1989 to provide provisions for the seizure of assets obtained by drug trafficking and for the regulation of the substance and materials used in the production of psychotropic substances and narcotic drugs. The Government of India issued the N. D. P. D (Regulation of Controlled Substances) Order in 1993 to give effect to the statutory provisions relating to these substances.[4] This order control regulates and monitors the manufacture, import, distribution, export, transportation, etc. of any substances that the Government may designate as controlled substances under the Act.

The Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act is currently in force and serves as a comprehensive code for the control and regulation of NDPS as well as for the control of specific chemicals, also referred to as precursors, which can be used to illicitly produce NDPS. It also serves as a tool for the investigation and forfeiture of assets with a drug-related history. The Preventing Illegal Traffic in NDPS Act of 1988 defined the requirements for detention to be employed in preventing illegal traffic in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, and associated goods.[5],[6],[7],[8]

India has signed and ratified the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in NDPS and has enacted the NDPS Act, of 1985. After the “grace period” for eliminating the nonmedical use of cannabis and opium established by the 1961 Convention had expired, domestic regulations were enacted only in the 1980s.[9] The NDPS Act, 1985 was swiftly approved by the Indian Parliament, using its authority to establish laws for the nation to follow “any treaty, accord, convention, or decision taken at an international conference.” The Opium Acts and the Dangerous Drugs Act were repealed and replaced with the NDPS Act on November 14, 1985. However, the 1940 Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, still holds.

According to the official record, the NDPS Act was passed to reinforce regulations over psychotropic drugs, increase enforcement capabilities, and provide suitable consequences for drug trafficking. In 1989, 2001, and most recently in 2014, the Act was revised.

Misused drugs or illegal drugs refer to both drugs that are legally manufactured but are abused and drugs that are created solely for abuse. Many of them fall under the category of “Controlled Substances” in the United States, which refers to their inclusion in the Controlled Substances Act, a section of the Federal Code (Act 21 United States C. 812).

Illicit drug and its classification

A drug is any substance administered to a person or, in some cases, another animal, to alter the organism's normal physiological or psychological functioning for therapeutic purposes. This substance may be natural or synthetic. Most medications are created lawfully by pharmaceutical companies and are prescribed for diseases, injuries, or other health issues. Most often, people utilize and take these medications as prescribed. However, sometimes they produce delightful side effects, leading to their use for reasons other than those for which they were designed.[9],[10],[11],[12]

When individuals use drugs for reasons other than those for which they were designed, most often for their psychoactive effects, this is known as drug abuse. There are legal prescription drugs and chemicals that are made and used only for their psychoactive effects. Many of these drugs are obtained from natural sources, mostly plants, or are manufactured from naturally existing substances. Others are entirely manufactured substances. There is a wide variety of terminology used to describe pharmaceuticals that have been abused all over the world.

Classification

  1. Natural occurring drugs-These chemicals are present in plants in nature. A portion of the plant is consumed, and the user then extracts and uses the medicine. Some instances are:


    • Marijuana-Marijuana is smoked by drying and puffing on the leaves
    • Psilocybin mushrooms-They contain the hallucinogens psilocybin and psilocin, which produce them (hallucinogen) when they are consumed
    • Peyote cactus-The buttons on the peyote cactus are consumed. They have psychedelic mescaline in them.


  2. Extracts of plants. These are obtained from plants and consumed as naturally occurring compounds. Some instances are:


    • Cocaine-Cocaine originates from the coca plant, whereas opium poppies are the source of morphine and codeine.


  3. Semi-synthetic-Chemically, these chemicals are generated from a material that occurs in nature. Some instances are:


    • Heroin-Heroin, which is derived from morphine
    • Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-LSD is a drug made from lysergic acid.


  4. Synthetic-These materials are entirely synthetic.


  • Phencyclidine (PCP)
  • Amphetamines
  • Oxycodone
  • Barbiturates.


Marijuana is the illegal substance that is used most often. Additionally, this covers the use of legal chemicals in dangerous ways, such as solvent inhalation and improper prescription of sedatives, mild tranquilizers, and anabolic steroids. Illegal drug use, despite its low incidence, has the potential to negatively affect young people's health and social development. Due to the %possibility of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious illnesses spreading among intravenous illegal drug users, public health methods to decrease the negative health and social impacts associated with illicit drug use are especially crucial. Increases in the use of most illegal substances by adolescents have been a global phenomenon since 1990 in several countries, despite a fall in frequency during the 1980s.[13],[14],[15],[16]


  Prevalence of Major Licit and Illicit Drugs Among Youth Top


India is not an exception when it comes to the global public health issue which is substance usage, both legal and illegal. The frequency of lifetime drug usage in 2015 was 5%, according to the most current World Drug Report. Disorders related to drug usage were 0.6% prevalent. Nearly 29.5 million individuals worldwide have drug use disorders in absolute terms. In recent years, several studies on college students and medical students were carried out to ascertain the frequency of drug use and its pattern. Intriguingly, the same percentage (0.6%) of Indians with drug use problems were recorded in the country's most recent National Mental Health Survey (NMHS).[17] India, which is home to around 18% of the world's population, is a diversified nation in terms of its culture, economy, and sociopolitical system. All of these might affect drug usage among the general population. The frequency of drug use disorders varied significantly between the states, as predicted, according to the NMHS. Punjab had the greatest incidence of drug use disorders (2.5%), whereas Kerala and Gujarat had a frequency of just 0.1%. Being a household survey, the NMHS was likely to underestimate drug use problems, which represent a “hidden population” that is difficult to reach using conventional home survey techniques because of stigma and displacement. However, it is interesting that Punjab has a startlingly high frequency of drug use problems.[18]

One of India's northern states, Punjab, shares its international border with Pakistan (which in turn shares its border with Afghanistan, which continues to be the world's greatest producer of illegal natural opiates), as well as its national borders with Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Haryana. In this context, the Punjab Opioid Dependence Survey was accomplished in 2014. According to this study, the prevalence of current opioid dependency is 0.84%, which is higher than the NMHS's estimate for the prevalence of drug use disorders in India. These investigations used various approaches. Although the NMHS is a home survey, Punjab Opioid Dependence Survey used Respondent Driven Sampling to get estimates from the “hidden population” of opioid-dependent people who are difficult for normal population-based surveys to reach.[19],[20] [Table 1] represents the percentage of drug consumption in various India states.
Table 1: Drugs consumption in different states[21]

Click here to view


Drug testing among athletes

Only organized, competitive sports normally subject athletes to drug testing. Organizations like the National Collegiate Athletic Association and its member schools have implemented widespread drug testing procedures with strict consequences for those who fail the tests.[22],[23],[24],[25]

Under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency and equivalent national organizations, consistent anti-doping procedures apply to elite athletes participating at international and national levels. The World Anti-Doping Agency is an independent global organization responsible for publishing the World Anti-Doping Code, a set of principles and guidelines for anti-doping programs in all sports and all nations. The initial version of the Code was approved in 2003, with implementation beginning in 2004.[8] Various anti-doping organizations, such as the International Paralympic Committee, the International Olympic Committee, major event organizations, international sports federations (such as the International Cycling Union), and national anti-doping organizations, are tasked with implementing, adopting, or enforcing anti-doping rules within their respective spheres of authority, and the Code lays out specific rules and principles for them to follow.[26],[27],[28],[29]

Every year or so, WADA updates and releases a new version of its list of prohibited drugs. There are certain banned drugs and procedures that are always illegal (in and out of competition) due to the possibility of enhancing performance in future contests or the possibility of masking, and there are other banned substances and methods that are only prohibited during competition. These substances are often utilized by various athletic populations. [Table 2] depicts a few of them. These substances also have typical sign and symptoms, which are shown in [Table 3].
Table 2: Rates of substance abuse among diverse demographics of athletes, according to many recent study studies

Click here to view
Table 3: Common signs and symptoms of substance relatively commonly used by athletes

Click here to view


The World Anti-Doping Agency is also a pioneer in creating the biological passport idea for athletes. In 2009, WADA implemented regulations on athletes' use of biological passports. The core tenet of the athlete's biological passport is based on the monitoring of selected parameters over time that indirectly exposes the impact of doping as an alternative to the standard way of direct detection of doping by analytical procedures. The suspension of competitors by their federations after health tests revealed excessive hemoglobin levels during the 2006 Olympic Winter Games sparked renewed interest in this idea. The purpose of an athlete's passport is to document a person's first hormone and blood level readings so that any subsequent fluctuations may be detected and addressed. A positive result from a diagnostic test would need an abnormally large deviation from the subject's previously established norm. This method is designed to prevent athletes from receiving false-positive test results due to high levels of endogenous chemicals that occur naturally, while also detecting individuals who are trying to cheat by utilizing such substances.

Substance abuse in other industries

According to Bacharach et al.,[30] managerial control, workplace culture, stress levels, and the implementation of regulations all have an impact on how much alcohol is consumed by employees. As employees learn from their peers what constitutes good drinking behaviour, workplace culture was considered as a decisive factor. These presumptions may often develop into societal expectations, which put pressure on employees to comply. Additionally, industry-and job-specific workplace characteristics that contribute to drug usage may provide problems for productivity. Regarding disparities across industries, employees in the hospitality sector have been recognised as a high-risk category with relation to drug use at work.[31] Other high-risk categories for drug use have been found in studies to include those working in the arts and leisure as well as the construction sector.[32] Peer pressure was cited by Du Plessis and Corney[33] as a key contributor to the rise in drug usage in the construction sector. As many individuals engage in after-work socialising with coworkers, which may include drinking and other activities, it is plausible that peer pressure from coworkers may have an impact on drug usage. In other words, spending time with coworkers who often use drugs may increase someone's likelihood of using drugs themselves.

Given the impact that drug use may have on one's ability to make decisions both during and after usage, the favourable associations seen in the construction sector are particularly concerning. A possible contributing factor to the rise in drug usage in the construction sector, according to Biggs and Williamson, is the employee's incapacity to handle the lifestyle that results from project-to-project, nomadic labour.[34]

Part of the reason for the high probability of drug use among certain segments of the agricultural business was self-esteem problems brought on by a sense of undervaluation as a result of the absence of suitable career options and proper training.[35]


  Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs and Their Illicit Use Top


The NDPS Act makes it illegal to cultivate, produce, possess, sell, buy, trade, import, export, use, and consume narcotic narcotics and psychotropic substances unless they are used for legally permitted medicinal and scientific reasons. Both planning and trying to conduct some crimes are prohibited. Criminal conspiracy and aiding and abetting are accessory offenses that carry the same penalties as the primary offense.

The act covers three broad classes of substances

  • Narcotics, or drugs controlled under the 1961 Convention
  • Psychotropic drugs, those governed by the 1971 Convention, as well as other psychoactive compounds, including ketamine, have not yet been assigned a specific classification by international agreements
  • ”Controlled substances,” which include precursor compounds like acetic anhydride, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine, are utilized to produce narcotic medications or psychoactive substances.


Narcotic drugs and their prevalence

Cannabis

The illegal substance used most often in the EU is cannabis. Around 1% of European individuals (aged 15–64) are thought to use cannabis daily or almost daily. Sixty percentage of them are between the ages of 15 and 34. The percentage of people who have used cannabis at least once in their lifetimes varies greatly throughout the EU Member States, from over 40% in France, 30% in Denmark, and <0% in several Eastern European nations (Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania). According to a poll conducted by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction in 2016, 16.6 million young Europeans (aged 15–34, or 13% of this age group) reported using cannabis in the previous year. Only a few EU Member States provide survey data on medium-and long-term trends in young people's cannabis usage in the previous year (15–34 years).

According to surveys, the prevalence of cannabis has decreased or remained consistent over the last 10 years in nations with relatively high prevalence levels like Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom, however, it has increased since 2010 in France. Teenagers utilize the substance for several purposes, such as experimenting, mood-enhancing, social-enhancing, and adhering to peer pressure. The major goal of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs is to gather comparable information on drug use among 15–16-year-old European students to track trends both within and across nations. The most common illegal substance used by 15–16-year-old school kids, according to the most recent ESPAD data, was cannabis.[36]

Coca

Cocaine is derived from the leaves of the Erythoxylon coca plant, which is native only to the Andean foothills of the Amazon rainforest in South America. There is evidence of the use of coca leaves by indigenous people as early as the year 500 Anno Domini. Throughout Peru, coca plants were planted widely 500 years later. Domestically produced cocaine is made from coca leaves and shipped to the US and other nations. Cocaine was quite well-liked in the US as a recreational drug at the turn of the 20th century. There were several items on the market that included cocaine. might consume them by drinking, inhaling, or injecting them.

The Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 and the Harrison Act of 1914 significantly reduced cocaine usage and tightened control over the substance. Cocaine usage decreased in the 1930s as amphetamines became more accessible, but then it increased once again in the 1970s when amphetamines were rigorously regulated. For a very long time, people thought cocaine wasn't a physiologically addictive substance. The introduction of crack, a crystalline form of cocaine, has altered this attitude. Since crack can be smoked and has a lower melting point than powdered cocaine, it has gained popularity. As a result, crack's effects are significantly amplified, and the body can absorb it more readily. Crack cocaine may result in physical addiction when smoked.

Opium

Opium poppy plant, opium poppy straw, opium poppy juice, opium poppy juice mixture, formulations with 0.2% morphine, and derivatives like morphine, heroin, and codeine.

Psychotropic drugs

Greek words for soul and turning, respectively, are psycho and trope. Any carpet that has an odd affinity towards or impacts on the psyche (mind-altering). Psychotropic drugs include:

  • Depressants-Depressants are medications that slow down the brain's processing speed, leading to a state of peace and contentment. In the form of sedatives, they are used to help people relax and drift off to sleep. Some examples are barbiturates, mild tranquilizers, and opiate analgesics
  • Hypnotics-Hypnotics, like depressants, influence the central nervous system and produce drowsiness. Substances such as barbiturates, methaqualone, and chloral hydrate are all examples of hypnotic medications
  • Stimulants-Stimulants are medicines that increase brain activity. Illicit therapeutic applications of several stimulants include the treatment of depression and the management of weight gain caused by overeating (psychostimulant). Both amphetamines and cocaine work by stimulating the central nervous system
  • Hallucinogens-Hallucinogens are medications that alter one's state of mind and one's perceptions in various ways, from sensory illusions to full-blown hallucinations. Drugs like LSD, PCP, and psilocybin fall within this group.



  Substance Use Disorders Top


Substance use disorders are characterised by chronic alcohol and/or drug abuse which results in clinically substantial impairment. This impairment caused by continuous substance use may manifest in a variety of ways, including health issues, incapacity, and the inability to fulfil key duties at school, work, or home. It also has repercussions for individuals, groups, and the larger society.

Physical health

Some of how drug misuse may negatively affect a teen's health include accidental injuries (such as those sustained in vehicle accidents), physical impairments, illnesses, and even death from overdose. An excessive number of young people who use alcohol and other drugs are at higher danger of dying prematurely through suicide, violence, accidents, and diseases.

Emergency room visits for substance abuse have been on the rise, as reported by the Drug Abuse Warning Network study. This research was conducted in a nationally representative sample of hospitals throughout the United States. There was a 17% rise from 1993 to 1994 in the number of 12–17-year-olds who presented to emergency rooms due to drug use, according to estimates based on preliminary data. This rise was higher than that seen in any of the older age groups studied. Young people (12–17) had a 50% rise in marijuana/hashish-related ER visits between 1993 and 1994. In 1993, 91 teenagers died as a direct result of drug usage.[37]

Mental health

Substance misuse in adolescents is often linked to a variety of mental health issues, including but not limited to clinical depression, developmental delays, apathy, withdrawal, and other psychosocial dysfunctions. Young individuals who misuse drugs have a much higher incidence of clinical depression, suicidal thoughts and behaviour, personality disorders, and committed suicide compared to their counterparts who do not engage in substance abuse. Among young people, marijuana use is quite common; this usage has been found to impair short-term memory, learning, and psychomotor abilities. One's drive and psychological/emotional growth might be impacted as well.

Social and economic consequences

Substance abuse among adolescents has substantial implications for both society and the family's finances. The causes of these problems are the increased costs associated with supporting adolescents who are unable to support themselves, the increased demand for medical and other treatment services for these youth, as well as the increased financial losses and emotional distress experienced by victims of alcohol and drug-related crimes.[38]

Academics

Dropping out of school, poor academic performance and increased absenteeism have all been connected to adolescent drug use. Teenage drug use has been associated with a lack of academic motivation and an increase in absenteeism, according to research cited by Hawkins et al. Adolescents who drink or use drugs may have cognitive and behavioral problems that make it difficult for them to learn and disrupt their classmates' capacity to do so as well.[39],[40]


  Preventing Substance Abuse and Harm Top


The given [Figure 1] describes different prevention strategies for controlling the substance abuse alongwith some measures which can help reducing the scenario of substance abuse.[41],[42],[43],[44],[45],[46]
Figure 1: Prevention strategies for substance abuse

Click here to view



  Treatment of Substance Use and Substance Dependence Top


Motivational enhancement therapy

Based on the trans-theoretical framework of change and the social learning theory, Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) aims to promote clients' intrinsic motivation for behavioral change via client-centered care. Problematic drinking and alcohol-related harm prevention do not seem to be affected by MET. Treatment for any kind of substance abuse results in minor, but statistically significant decreases in total substance use in youth, according to controlled research. With the cigarette data removed, however, the average effect size was rather tiny, with considerable uncertainty. Abstinence from ecstasy and cocaine was not found to be different in a randomized controlled trial with youn-g stimulant users compared to a control group that received just information on the effects and health hazards of stimulants.[47],[48]

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT's) effectiveness in treating drug use problems among young people has only been studied in a small number of cases. Some data suggest that CBT enhances abstinence from cigarettes, but only from low-quality research; other trials show CBT is effective for cannabis use disorders, and the results of two alcohol treatment trials were inconclusive. According to a study by the US Institute of Medicine published in 2015, the standard of evidence supporting psychosocial therapies for drug abuse was low.[49],[50]

Pharmacotherapy based approach

Buprenorphine, Methadone, and naltrexone-based pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction has been shown to be effective in lowering illegal opioid consumption. Opioid-dependent persons on parole, probation, or in drug courts seldom use these therapies.

Various immunotherapeutic strategies are being developed to treat drug addiction. Antibodies that attach to drugs and stop them from having rewarding effects on the brain are produced by the immune system when the immune system is stimulated by drug vaccinations. Nicotine, opioids, methamphetamine, and cocaine are now being studied drugs of abuse. Numerous potential treatments are available with immunotherapy, including overdose treatment, pharmaceutical addiction treatment, foetal protection during pregnancy, and heart and brain toxin prevention.[51]

Family-based treatments and multisystemic therapy

Some research suggests that young individuals with alcohol use disorders may be helped by family-based treatments and multisystemic therapy. However, several of these trials lacked long-term follow-up, and a control group received no treatment. Two trials found modest reductions in hazardous use and harm, but there was not enough data to make any firm conclusions regarding effectiveness. In this case, we were unable to find any evidence of tobacco-specific family interventions. Significant but modest effects on drug abuse and criminal behavior were found in an evaluation of multisystemic and family-based treatments for youth substance abuse.[52],[53]


  Public Health Interventions to Prevent Substance Use among Youths Top


Young people in industrialized nations have used drugs more often since 1991, with marijuana usage showing the highest increase. The totality of efforts to cut down on drug usage in communities has not been able to stop these recent upward tendencies. It is crucial to design a cohesive public health strategy to prevent and decrease the drug use. This strategy should be based on the data currently available on successful programs and take both theoretical and practical factors into account. Interventions in public health include primary prevention—preventing the beginning of drug use—and secondary prevention—decreasing the amount of substance use and abuse.[54],[55]

In general, the focus has been on preventing the start of smoking, drinking, and using illegal drugs. The theoretical components that have been proven to be most significantly connected with drug use should be the foundation for developing tailored therapies. Social factors, particularly peer pressure, play a significant role in the onset and continuation of drug use across a variety of areas. For instance, the main strategy for tobacco education in the 1970s was the creation of a school curriculum to educate and inform pupils. Compared to more current programs that focus on influencing peers and societal pressures to smoke and improving social skills to refuse offers of tobacco, these programs were largely ineffectual.[56],[57]

Between 50 and 75% of children reported decreased usage of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana during the follow-up in the seventh grade, according to Botvin et al. By the time students graduated from high school, around 44% had cut down on their usage of cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana, and 66% had stopped using all three. At 3 years, there was a discernible impact on knowledge and attitudes toward drug use.[58]


  Conclusion Top


Prevention of illicit drug misuse is crucial for health on a global and national scale. For the benefit of patients, treatment recommendations must be created and put into practice. Several studies concluded that the relationships between drug use and its health services, and the cost of medical care have used a community-based sample of drug users. According to the study, interactive programs emphasizing life or skill development should be adopted in schools. For prevention to be successful, national policy objectives must be set, a global information system developed, and global collaboration at all levels strengthened. Since many health-related behaviors are established in early adulthood, more research is needed to determine the obstacles and motivations to developing and sustaining routines that promote the consumption of a variety of legal and illicit substances.

Acknowledgement

We express our sincere thanks and gratitude to our Research supervisor and Principal for their valuable support.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Degenhardt L, Hall W. Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease. Lancet 2012;379:55-70.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Moore MH. Supply reduction and drug law enforcement. Crime Justice 1990;13:109-57.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Brown RH. The opium trade and opium policies in India, China, Britain, and the United States: Historical comparisons and theoretical interpretations. Asian J Soc Sci 2002;30:623-56.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Lipton SA, Choi YB, Pan ZH, Lei SZ, Chen HS, Sucher NJ, et al. A redox-based mechanism for the neuroprotective and neurodestructive effects of nitric oxide and related nitroso-compounds. Nature 1993;364:626-32.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Daniel, Angualia, International Narcotics Control, an Analysis of Uganda's Level of Compliance with its Obligations Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1966. SSRN Electronic J 2010:1-19. Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1673773 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1673773. [Last accessed on 2022 Oct 24].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Malik F, Mangku DG. Implementation of the ratification of united nation convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substance for Indonesia. Int J Bus Econ Law 2019;18:19-25.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Wang C, Lassi N, Zhang X, Sharma V. The evolving regulatory landscape for fentanyl: China, India, and global drug governance. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19: 2074.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kitchen C, Kabba JA, Fang Y. Status and impacts of recreational and medicinal cannabis policies in Africa: A systematic review and thematic analysis of published and “Gray” literature. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2022;7:239-61.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Oleskin AV, Shenderov BA. Probiotics and psychobiotics: The role of microbial neurochemicals. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2019;11:1071-85.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A. The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: A review. CNS Neurosci Ther 2008;14:295-314.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chitturi R, Raghunathan R, Mahajan V. Delight by design: The role of hedonic versus utilitarian benefits. J Mark 2008;72:48-63.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Marconi VC, Ramanan AV, de Bono S, Kartman CE, Krishnan V, Liao R, et al. Efficacy and safety of baricitinib for the treatment of hospitalised adults withCOVID-19 (COV-BARRIER): A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Respir Med 2021;9:1407-18.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Lowry R, Cohen LR, Modzeleski W, Kann L, Collins JL, Kolbe LJ. School violence, substance use, and availability of illegal drugs on school property among US high school students. J Sch Health 1999;69:347-55.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Johnston L, Miech R, O'Malley P, Bachman J, Schulenberg J, Patrick M. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2019: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. 2020:1-124.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Johnston LD, Miech RA, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE, Patrick ME. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2021: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. 2022:1-154.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Miech RA, Johnston LD, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE, Patrick ME. Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2017: 2018; volume I, secondary school students: 1-119.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Avasthi A, Basu D, Subodh BN, Gupta PK, Goyal BL, Sidhu BS, et al. Epidemiology of dependence on illicit substances, with a special focus on opioid dependence, in the State of Punjab, India: Results from two different yet complementary survey methods. Asian J Psychiatr 2019;39:70-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Allsopp J, Sigona N, Phillimore J. Poverty among Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK: An Evidence and Policy Review. Birmingham: University of Birmingham, Institute for Research into Superdiversity; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Madruga CS, Laranjeira R, Caetano R, Pinsky I, Zaleski M, Ferri CP. Use of licit and illicit substances among adolescents in Brazil – A national survey. Addict Behav 2012;37:1171-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Bracken NM. National Study of Substance Use Trends Among NCAA College Student-Athletes. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Ambekar A, Agrawal A, Rao R, Mishra AK, Khandelwal SK, Chadda RK on behalf of the group of investigators for the National Survey on Extent and Pattern of Substance Use in India. Magnitude of Substance Use in India. New Delhi: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India. 2019:1-67.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Dunn M, Thomas JO, Swift W, Burns L, Mattick RP. Drug testing in sport: The attitudes and experiences of elite athletes. Int J Drug Policy 2010;21:330-2.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Goldberg L, Elliot DL, MacKinnon DP, Moe E, Kuehl KS, Nohre L, et al. Drug testing athletes to prevent substance abuse: background and pilot study results of the SATURN (student athlete testing using random notification) study. J Adolesc Health 2003;32:16-25.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Fedoruk MN. Virtual drug testing: Redefining sample collection in a global pandemic. Bioanalysis 2020;12:715-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Thevis M, Kuuranne T, Geyer H. Annual banned-substance review: Analytical approaches in human sports drug testing. Drug Test Anal 2018;10:9-27.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Thevis M, Kuuranne T, Fedoruk M, Geyer H. Sports drug testing and the athletes' exposome. Drug Test Anal 2021;13:1814-21.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Rulison KL, Milroy JJ, Wyrick DL. A randomized iterative approach to optimizing an online substance use intervention for collegiate athletes. Transl Behav Med 2022;12:ibab119.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Wang R. Money matters: The effects of cost in the doping game between athletes, organizations and customers. Public Admin Res 2022l:11:32-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Marclay F, Mangin P, Margot P, Saugy M. Perspectives for forensic intelligence in anti-doping: Thinking outside of the box. Forensic Sci Int 2013;229:133-44.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Bacharach SB, Bamberger PA, Sonnenstuhl WJ. Driven to drink: Managerial control, work-related risk factors, and employee problem drinking. Acad Manage J 2002;45:637-58.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Pidd K, Roche AM, Buisman-Pijlman F. Intoxicated workers: Findings from a national Australian survey. Addiction 2011;106:1623-33.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Berry JG, Pidd K, Roche AM, Harrison JE. Prevalence and patterns of alcohol use in the Australian workforce: Findings from the 2001 national drug strategy household survey. Addiction 2007;102:1399-410.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
du Plessis K, Corney T. Construction industry apprentices' substance use: A survey of prevalence rates, reasons for use, and regional and age differences. Youth Stud Aust 2011;30:40-50.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Biggs HC and Williamson AR. Safety impacts of alcohol and other drugs in construction: development of an industry policy and cultural change management program. In: Smith SD, editor. Procs 28th Annual ARCOM Conference. Vol. 1. Edinburgh, UK. Association of Researchers in Construction Management 2012. p. 445-54.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Evans AR, Tait R, Harvey P, Newbury J. Recreational drug use within the employees of the mariculture and seafood industry in South Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2005;24:67-8.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Singh Balhara YP, Singh S. Provisions for health sector response to substance use disorders in the Indian Policy: A critique of the national policy on narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. J Psychoactive Drugs 2020;52:93-100.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Hibell B. The 2012 ESPAD impact survey. Lisboa: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
United States. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies: Annual emergency department data 1997: data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network / (Rockville, MD : Dept. of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, [1999]), also by United States. National Clearinghouse of Alcohol and Drug Information.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Gropper BA. Probing the Links between Drugs and Crime. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; 1985.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Miller JY. Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull 1992;112:64-105.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Dep't of Justice. Criminal victimization in the United States. 1992:1990-152.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Martineau F, Tyner E, Lorenc T, Petticrew M, Lock K. Population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: An overview of systematic reviews. Prev Med 2013;57:278-96.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Carson KV, Ameer F, Sayehmiri K, Hnin K, van Agteren JE, Sayehmiri F, et al. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;6:CD001006.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Hornik R, Jacobsohn L, Orwin R, Piesse A, Kalton G. Effects of the national youth anti-drug media campaign on youths. Am J Public Health 2008;98:2229-36.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Park E, Drake E. Systematic review: internet-based program for youth smoking prevention and cessation. J Nurs Scholarsh 2015;47:43-50.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Wood E, Shakeshaft A, Gilmour S, Sanson-Fisher R. A systematic review of school-based studies involving alcohol and the community. Aust N Z J Public Health 2006;30:541-9.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Foxcroft DR, Moreira MT, Almeida Santimano NM, Smith LA. Social norms information for alcohol misuse in university and college students. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;1:CD006748.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Jensen CD, Cushing CC, Aylward BS, Craig JT, Sorell DM, Steele RG. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change: A meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol 2011;79:433-40.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Marsden J, Stillwell G, Barlow H, Boys A, Taylor C, Hunt N, et al. An evaluation of a brief motivational intervention among young ecstasy and cocaine users: No effect on substance and alcohol use outcomes. Addiction 2006;101:1014-26.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Bryant J, Bonevski B, Paul C, McElduff P, Attia J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of behavioural smoking cessation interventions in selected disadvantaged groups. Addiction 2011;106:1568-85.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Carfora A, Cassandro P, Feola A, La Sala F, Petrella R, Borriello R. Ethical implications in vaccine pharmacotherapy for treatment and prevention of drug of abuse dependence. J Bioeth Inq 2018;15:45-55.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Dennis M, Godley SH, Diamond G, Tims FM, Babor T, Donaldson J, et al. The cannabis youth treatment (CYT) study: Main findings from two randomized trials. J Subst Abuse Treat 2004;27:197-213.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
England MJ, Butler AS, Gonzalez ML. Committee on developing evidence-based standards for psychosocial interventions for mental disorders. Nationalacademies. org. 2015.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Deas D. Evidence-based treatments for alcohol use disorders in adolescents. Pediatrics 2008;121 Suppl 4:S348-54.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Baldwin SA, Christian S, Berkeljon A, Shadish WR. The effects of family therapies for adolescent delinquency and substance abuse: A meta-analysis. J Marital Fam Ther 2012;38:281-304.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Mensch J. Kant's Organicism. InKant's Organicism 2013 Jun 1. University of Chicago Press.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Hansen WB, O'Malley PM. Drug use. In: Handbook of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior. Boston, MA: Springer; 1996. p. 161-92.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Botvin EM, Diaz T. Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. JAMA 1995;273:1106-12.  Back to cited text no. 58
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Prevalence of Ma...
Narcotics and Ps...
Substance Use Di...
Preventing Subst...
Treatment of Sub...
Public Health In...
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed356    
    Printed10    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded33    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]